Glossary

Coast Salish

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located along the British Columbia coastline.

Dunne-za

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are in north-eastern British Columbia and north-west Alberta.

Gitxsan

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are in north-western British Columbia including the the Babine, Bulkley, Kispiox and Skeena River areas.

Haida

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located on the islands of Haida Gwaii in northern British Columbia.

Haisla

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located in north-western British Columbia. The Haisla Nation is an amalgamation of two historic bands–the Kitamaat of the Douglas and Devastation channels and the Kitlope of the upper Princess Royal Channel and Gardner Canal.

Heiltsuk

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are the central coastal region of British Columbia. Heiltsuk traditional territory extends from the southern tip of Calvert Island, up Dean and Burke Channels as far as Kimsquit and the head of Dean Inlet to the northeast, and up the Mathieson and Finlayson Channels to the north.

Kwakwaka’wakw

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located along the central coast of British Columbia and the northern area of Vancouver Island.

Nisga’a

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located along the Nass River Valley in northern British Columbia.

Nuu-chah-nulth

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located along the Pacific Coast of Vancouver Island, from Brooks Peninsula in the north to Point-no-Point in the south, and includes inland regions.

Nuxalk

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located in and around Bella Coola along the central British Columbia coastline.

Tlingit

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located along the Alaska and northern British Columbia coastline

Tsimshian

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are in northern British Columbia and Alaska. The Tsimshian Nation comprises up to seven member First Nations which include: Kitselas, Kitsumkalum, the Allied Tribes of Lax Kw’Alaams, Metlakatla, Kitkatla, Gitga’at (Hartley Bay) and Kitasoo (Klemtu).

Squamish

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located along Vancouver’s Lower Mainland and up the coast to central British Columbia.

Lil’wat

First Nations cultural group whose ancestral homelands are located in and around the Pemberton area along the British Columbia south coast.

First Nations

Earliest residents of the continent – also known as aboriginal Canadians.

Michael Audain

Vancouver home developer and art collector.

Yoshiko Karasawa

Vancouver philanthropist and wife of Michael Audain.

North-West Coast

Land area located along the British Columbia coastline through to the Alaska coastline.

Danced

First Nations ceremony that animates a culturally symbolic object.

Ceremony

First Nations cultural acts usually performed in celebration of an event or right of passage.

Old Massett

Haida settlement on the island of Haida Gwaii.

Haida Gwaii

Homeland of the Haida First Nation.

Chief

Male leader of a First Nations family or group within a Nation.

Matriarch

Female leader of a First Nations family or group within a Nation.

Oolichan Greese

Oil from the Oolichan fish harvested in the spring along the north-west coast.

Flora

Plant life.

Fauna

Animal life.

Nass Valley

Ancestral homeland to the Nisga’a First Nation.

Skeena Valley

Ancestral homeland to the Tsimshian, Metlakatla, Gitxaala, Gitga’at, Kitsumkalum, Kitselas, and Haisla First Nations.

Vancouver Island

Located in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest Pacific island east of New Zealand.

Victoria

Capital city of British Columbia located on Vancouver Island.

Modernist

Philosophical movement that reflected great cultural change during the late 19th and 20th Century within Western society.

North Vancouver

Located in British Columbia, Canada, is a geographical area across the Burrard Inlet from the City of Vancouver.

Vancouver

Located in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest city in the Province of British Columbia.

Jacques Barbeau

Lawyer and collector of art – specifically works by E.J. Hughes.

Margaret Ann Owen

Wife of Jacques Barbeau and member of the Owen family of Vancouver.

Second World War

Global conflict between the years 1939 and 1945.

Western World

Complex term associated with industrialized countries depending on the context.

Group of Seven

Also known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Frank Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley.

Photo-Conceptualism

Idea-based art integrated into photography.

Vancouver School

Vancouver photography-based artists associated with the term include Vikky Alexander, Roy Arden, Ken Lum, Jeff Wall, Ian Wallace, Stan Douglas and Rodney Graham.

Artistic medium utilized by photgraphic based artists whereby an image is back-lit and framed within a box.

Chromogenic Print

Photographic based image composed of three main dye layers: cyan, magenta, and yellow—that together form a full-colour image.

Polychromed Wood

Piece of wood decorated with many colours.

Celtic Patterns

Series of styalized graphical representaitons of knots.

Abalone

Type of molusc shell utilized by many First Nations artist for decoration.

Hudson’s Bay Blanket

Type of blanket originating in the early 18th century during the Fur Trade in what is now known as Canada.

Labret

A form of body piercing – an adornment that is attached to the lower lip.

Potlatch

A Pacific Northwest Coast First Nations gift-giving feast.

Gulf Islands

Series of small islands in the Strait of Georgia (also known as Salish Sea or the Gulf of Georgia), between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia.

Operculum Shell

Type of gastopod (snail) shell.

Ovoid

Within a Northwest Coast First Nations context a design element with curvalinear positive and negative spaces.

U-Shape

Within a Northwest Coast First Nations context a design element that is created when with two ends of a formline coming together.

Totem Pole

Northwest Coast First Nations marker (ownership, lineage, celebration and/or decoration).

Banff Centre

A place outside the village of Banff, Alberta, Canada where artists gather to explore their creativity.

Frontlet

Within a Northwest Coast First Nations context an object that adorned a headress and worn by a chief or matriach during cultural ceremonies or special events.

Headdress

Within a Northwest Coast First Nations context an object worn by a chief or matriach during cultural ceremonies or special events.

Bentwood Box

Within a Northwest Coast First Nations context an artform that contained ceremonial regalia, objects and/or food.

Dance Screen

Within a Northwest Coast First Nations context a sculpture utilized in ceremonies to travel between the physical and ceremonial worlds.

Oil on canvas

A painting technique whereby oil paint is applied directly to canvas.

Acrylic on canvas

A painting technique whereby acrylic paint is applied directly to canvas.

Oil on board

A painting technique whereby oil paint is directly applied to a hard surface, traditionally paperboard or wood.

Oil on paper

A painting technique whereby oil paint is directly applied to paper.

Watercolour

A painting medium utilizing pigment suspended in water.

Mask

Within a Northwest Coast First Nations context an artform utilized for ceremonial or exhibition purposes.

Installation

A work of art usually created for a specific space or place.